Metabolomics has become an important research field with many areas of applications ranging from disease biomarker discovery to global biology systems study. A key step in metabolomics is to perform metabolome analysis to obtain quantitative information on metabolic changes among comparative samples. Mass spectrometry (MS) is widely used for highly sensitive detection of many different types of metabolites. In this review, we highlight some of the more commonly used MS techniques for metabolome analysis.
Pseudopodia are dynamic actin cytoskeleton-based membrane protrusions of cells that enable directional cell migra-tion. Pseudopodia of cancer cells play key roles in cancer metastasis. Recent studies using pseudopodial subcellular fractionation methodologies combined with mass spectrometry-based proteomic profiling have provided insight into the pseudopodiome that control the protrusions of invasive metastatic cancer cells. This review highlights how to characterize the protein composition of pseudopodia and develop strategies to identify biomarkers or drug candidates that target reduction or prevention of metastatic cancer.
Schisandra chinensis is a traditional herbal medicine that is widely spread in Korea, Japan, and China. The fruits of S. chinensis Bailon, known as omija in Korea, have traditionally been used for the treatment of coughs, fatigues, and insomnia. Up to now, there have been several reports for the identification of major lignan compounds and their quantitation in S. chinensis extracts. To the best of our knowledge, however, there is no report on the analysis of lignans in omija wine and omija cheong (sugared omija or omija sugar syrup). In the present study, seven dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans (gomisin A, gomisin B, gomisin C, gomisin N, schisandrin, deoxyschisandrin, and wuweizisu C) in omija wine and omija cheong were analyzed and quantitated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Among seven lignans, pharmacologically active gomisin A, schisandrin, and deoxyschisandrin, which are major components in fruits of S. chinensis, were the most abundant lignans in omija wine and cheong. The content of lignan in omija wine was in the order: schisandrin > gomisin A > deoxyschisandrin > gomisin N > gomisin B > gomisin C > wuweizisu C. The concentration of deoxyschisandrin and gomisin N in omija wine was approximately 2.0- and 6.0-fold higher than for omija cheong. Additionally, this study provided a systematic identification of lignans in omija wine and cheong and indicated that the omija wine and cheong might be of value for their dietary application.
Untargeted metabolomics is a useful tool for drug development focusing on novel chemotherapeutic and chemopreventative agents against cancer cells. In recent years, quadrupole time of flight liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (Q-TOF LC/MS)-based untargeted metabolomic approaches have gained importance to evaluate the effect of these agents at the molecular level. The researchers working on cell culture studies still do not apply standardized methodologies on sample prepa-ration for untargeted metabolomics approaches. In this study, the rough and wet lysis techniques performed on MCF-7 breast cancer cells were compared with each other via the Q-TOF LC/MS-based metabolomic approach. The C18 and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) columns were used for the separation of the metabolites in MCF-7 cell lysates. 505 peaks were detected through the HILIC column and 551 peaks were found through the C18 column for the wet lysis technique. This situation supported by the base peak chromatograms showed that the wet lysis technique allowed us to extract higher num- ber of non-polar metabolites. Almost equal number of metabolites was found for the C18 and HILIC columns (697 peaks for the HILIC column and 695 peaks for the C18 column) when the rough lysis technique was used. However, the intensities of polar metabolites were higher for the rough lysis technique on base peak chromatograms for both the HILIC and C18 columns. Although cell lysis technique, which is the first step in the sample preparation for cell culture studies, does not cause dramatic differences in the number of the detected metabolite peaks, it affects the polar and non-polar metabolite ratio significantly. Therefore, it must be considered carefully especially for in vitro drug development studies.