This article reviews the fundamentals of sample preparation used in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). MALDI is a soft ionization method used to generate analyte ions in their intact forms, which are then detected in MS analysis. MALDI-MS boasts fast analysis times and easy-to-use operation. The disadvantages of MALDI-MS include the occurrence of matrix-associated peaks and inhomogeneous distribution of analyte within the matrix. To overcome the disadvantages of MALDI-MS, various efforts have been directed such as using different matrices, novel matrix systems, various additives, and different sample preparation methods. These various efforts will be discussed in detail. This article will benefit those who would like to obtain basic knowledge of MALDI sample preparation and those who would like to use MALDI-MS in their chemical analyses.
Phosphorylation upon protein is well known to a key regulator that implicates in modulating many cellular processes like growth, migration, and differentiation. Up to date, grafting of multidimensional separation techniques onto advanced mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as a promising tool for figuring out the biological functions of phosphorylation in a cell. However, advanced MS-based phosphoproteomics is still challenging, due to its intrinsic issues, i.e., low stoichiometry, less susceptibility in positive ion mode, and low abundance in biological sample. To overcome these bottlenecks, diverse techniques (e.g., SCX, HILIC, ERLIC, IMAC, TiO2, etc.) are continuously developed for on-/off-line enrichment of phosphorylated protein (or peptide) from biological samples, thereby helping qualitative/quantitative determination of phosphorylated protein and its phosphorylated sites. In this review, we introduce to the overall views of enrichment tools that are universally used to selectively isolate targeted phosphorylated protein (or peptide) from ordinary ones before MS-based phospoproteomic analysis.
Roflumilast analogs are a group of drugs which act as selective photodiesterase (PDE-4) inhibitor for the treatment severe chronic pulmonary disease associated with chronic brochnonities. Structural identification of degradation products using high resolution mass spectrometry and theoretical investigation by density functional theory have been successfully carried out on roflumilast to identify four degradation products namely, 3,5-dichloropyridin-4-amine, N-(3,5-dichloropyridin-4-yl)-4-(difluoromethoxy)-3-hydroxy benzamide, N-(3,5-dichloropyridin-4-yl)-3-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-(difluoromethoxy) benzamide and 3-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-N- (3,5-dichloro-1-oxidopyridin-4-yl)-4-(difluoro methoxy) benzamide, generated in alkali, acidic and oxidative conditions.
Detection of mefenamic acid (M, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, NSAIDs) and its metallodrug was investigated using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and fluorescence spectroscopy. ESI-MS data (500 μL, 1×10-3 M) revealed high detection sensitivity for the drug and metallodrug. ESI-MS spectra revealed peaks at 242, 580, and 777 Da corresponding to [M+H]+, [63Cu(M-H)2(H2O)2+H]+, and [56Fe(M-H)3+H]+, respectively. The metal:mefenamic ratios of ESIMS spectra are in complete agreement with the fluorescence spectroscopy results (1:2 for Cu(II) and 1:3 for Fe(III)). ESI is a soft ionization technique that can be used on labile metallo-mefenamic acids and is promising for the detection of these species in environmental samples and biological fluids.
Kinsenoside is a principle bioactive compound of Anoectochilus formosanus. It exhibits various pharmacological effects such as antihyperglycemic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulating, and hepatoprotective activities and has recently been developed as an antidiabetic drug candidate. In this study, as part of an in vitro pharmacokinetic study, the stability of kinsenoside in rat and human liver microsomes was evaluated. Kinsenoside was found to have good metabolic stability in both rat and human liver microsomes. These results will provide useful information for further in vivo pharmacokinetic and metabolism studies.
In the article by Kim et al. (2014) an author was not included in the author list. The author Ahsan-Ul-Bari Md should be included in the author list as above.