Various efforts have been developed to improve sample preparation steps, which strongly depend on hands-on processes for accurate and sensitive quantitative proteome analysis. In this study, we carried out heating the sample prior to trypsin digestion using an instrument to improve the tryptic digestion process. The heat shock generated by the system efficiently denatured proteins in the sample and increased the reproducibility in quantitative proteomics based on peptide abundance measurements. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the protocol, three cell lines (A human lung cancer cell line (A549), a human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK293T), and a human colorectal cancer cell line (HCT-116)) were selected and the effect of heat shock was compared to that of normal tryptic digestion processes. The tryptic digests were desalted and analysed by LC-MS/MS, the results showed 57 and 36% increase in the number of identified unique peptides and proteins, respectively, than conventional digestion. Heat shock treated samples showed higher numbers of shorter peptides and peptides with low inter-sample variation among triplicate runs. Quantitative LC-MS/MS analysis of heat shock treated sample yielded peptides with smaller relative error percentage for the triplicate run when the peak areas were compared. Exposure of heat-shock to proteomic samples prior to proteolysis in conventional digestion process can increase the digestion efficiency of trypsin resulting in production of increased number of peptides eventually leading to higher proteome coverage.
Results of free and bound myo-inositol in infant formula (IF) are presented. Inositol was analyzed by HILIC ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer. The levels of free myo-inositol in 27 Australian and 4 EU originated IF samples were 300-600 mg/kg of powder or 1.6-3.1 mg/100 kJ. The amount of bound inositol in lipid fraction of IF was, on average, 10% of free myo-inositol.
Characterization of intact protein structures in the gas phase using electrospray ionization combined with ion mobility mass spectrometry has become an important tool of research. However, the biophysical properties that govern the structures of protein ions in the gas phase remain to be understood. Here, we investigated the impact of host-guest complexation of ubiquitin (Ubq) with macrocyclic host molecules, cucurbit[n]urils (CB[n]s, n = 6, 7), on its structure in the gas phase. We found that CB[n] complexation induces the formation of compact Ubq ions. Both CB and CB exhibited similar effects despite differences in their binding properties in solution. In addition, CB[n] attachment prevented Ubq from unfolding by collisional activation. Based on the experimental results, we suggest that CB[n]s prevent unfolding of Ubq during transfer to the gas phase to promote the formation of compact protein ions. Furthermore, interaction with positively charged residues per se is suggested to be the most important factor for the host-guest complexation effect.
Dual-channel nano-electrospray has recently become an ionization technique of great promise especially in biological mass spectrometry. This unique approach takes advantage of the mixing processes that occurs during electrospray. Understanding in more detail the fundamental principles influencing spray formation further study of the origins of the mixing processes: (1) in a Taylor cone region, (2) in charged droplets or (3) in both environments. The dual-channel emitters were made from borosilicate theta-shape glass tubes (O.D. 1.2 mm) and had a tip diameters of less than 4 μm. Electrical contact was achived by deposition of a thin film of an appropriate metal onto the surface of the emitter. The experimental investigation of the Taylor cone formation in a dual-channel electrospray emitter has been carried out by injection of polystyrene beads (diameter 3 μm) at very low concentrations into one of the channels of the non-tapered theta-glass tubes. High-speed camera experiments were set up to visualize the mixing processes in Taylor cone regions for dual-channel emitters. Mass spectra from dual nano-electrospray are presented.
Simultaneous determination of three corticosteroids (clobetasol propionate, betamethasone dipropionate, fluticasone propionate) in moisturizers was performed by using liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Sample preparation was conducted by the liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). Moisturizers include emulsifying agent and it forms micelles. In order to improve the extraction efficiency of corticosteroids trapped in micelle, newly developed-optimized extraction conditions which can remove the matrix effect from moisturizers was applied with various pH conditions in LLE extraction stage of sample preparation. Thus, the addition of 10 μL of 1 M HCl into moisturizers sample before extraction could improve the extraction efficiency. For the quantitative analysis, SRM table that contained specific transition of all of target corticosteroids was created. The developed method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantization (LOQ) and recovery. Over the 0.99 r2 value was obtained in calibration standard range. Effective accuracy and precision were also obtained. LODs were below 31 ng/mL and LOQs were estimated below 94 ng/mL for all corticosteroids tested.