Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins regulate self-renewal and differentiation in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Nitration of tyrosine residues of proteins in ESCs modulates their downstream pathways, which can affect self-renewal and differentiation. However, protein tyrosine nitration (PTN) in ESCs has been rarely studied. We reviewed 23 nitrated sites in stem cell proteins. Functional enrichment analysis showed that these nitrated proteins are involved in signal transduction, cell adhesion and migration, and cell proliferation in ESCs. Comparison between the nitrated and known phosphorylated sites revealed that 7 nitrated sites had overlapping phosphorylated sites, indicating functional links of PTNs to their associated signaling pathways in ESCs. Therefore, nitrated proteome provides a basis for understanding potential roles of PTN in self-renewal and differentiation of ESCs.
In recent years, matrix-free laser desorption ionization (LDI) for mass spectrometry of thermally labile molecules has been an important research subject in the pursuit of new ionization methods to serve as alternatives to the conventional matrixassisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) method. While many recent studies have reported successful LDI of thermally labile molecules from various surfaces, mostly from surfaces with nanostructures, understanding of what drives the LDI process still requires further study. This article briefly reviews the thermal aspects involved in the LDI mechanism, which can be characterized as rapid surface heating. The thermal mechanism was supported by observed LDI and postsource decay (PSD) of peptide ions produced from flat surfaces with special thermal properties including amorphous Si (a-Si) and tungsten silicide (WSix). In addition, the concept of rapid surface heating further suggests a practical strategy for the preparation of LDI sample plates, which allows us to choose various surface materials including crystalline Si (c-Si) and Au tailorable to specific applications.
To determine the influence of the cationization agent on the collision activated dissociation (CAD) fragmentation behavior of oligosaccharides, the CAD spectra of the singly protonated, sodiated oligosaccharides and singly sodiated and dibenzo-18-crown-6 ether conjugated oligosaccharides were carefully compared. Each of these three different species showed quite different fragmentation spectra. The comparison of singly protonated and sodiated oligosaccharide CAD spectra revealed that different cationization agents affected the cationization agent adduction sites as well as the fragmentation sites within the oligosaccharides. When the mobility of Na+ was limited by the dibenzo-18-crown-6 ether encapsulation agent, the examined linear oligosaccharides showed fragmentation patterns quite different from the unmodified ones. For the dibenzo-18-crown-6 ether conjugated oligosaccharides, the charge-remote fragmentation pathways were more likely to be activated than the chargedirected pathways. This work demonstrates that dibenzo-18-crown-6 ether conjugation can potentially provide a route to selectively activate the charge-remote fragmentation pathways, albeit to a limited extent, in tandem mass spectrometry studies.
This study explored the feasibility of using a carburization technique to enhance the ion intensity of isotopic analysis of ultra-trace levels of uranium using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Prior to fixing uranium samples on TIMS filaments, graphite powder suspended in nitric acid was deposited on rhenium filaments. We observed an enhancement of 238U+ intensity by a factor of two when carburization was used, and were able to roughly optimize the amount of graphite powder necessary for carburization. The positive shift in heating current when evaporating filaments upon carburization implies that uranium was chemically altered by carburization, when compared to normal fixation processes. The good agreement between our method and known standards down to an ultra-trace level shows that the proposed technique can be applied to isotopic uranium analysis down to abundances of ~10 pg.
Ginseng, a traditional herbal drug, has been used in Eastern Asia for more than 2000 years. Various ginsenosides, which are the major bioactive components of ginseng products, have been shown to exert numerous beneficial effects on the human body when co-administered with drugs. However, this may give rise to ginsenoside-drug interactions, which is an important research consideration. In this study, acassette assay was performed the inhibitory effects of 12 ginsenosides on seven cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms in human liver microsomes (HLMs) using LC-MS/MS to predict the herb-drug interaction. After incubation of the 12 ginsenosides with seven cocktail CYP probes, the generated specific metabolites were quantified by LC-MS/MS to determine their activities. Ginsenoside Rb1 and F2 showed strong selective inhibitory effect on CYP2C9-catalyzed diclofenac 4′-hydroxylation and CYP2B6-catalyzed bupropion hydroxylation, respectively. Ginsenosides Rd showed weak inhibitory effect on the activities of CYP2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 3A4, and compound K, while ginsenoside Rg3 showed weak inhibitory effects on CYP2B6. Other ginsenosides, Rc, Rf, Rg1, Rh1, Rf, and Re did not show significant inhibitory effects on the activities of the seven CYPs in HLM. Owing to the poor absorption of ginsenosides after oral administration in vivo, ginsenosides may not have significant side effects caused by interaction with other drugs.
Glycerol was identified and isolated from endogenous interferences during analysis of human urine using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) for doping control. Urinary sample preparation was simple; the samples were diluted with an organic solvent and then analyzed using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (“dilute and shoot” method). Although the interfering ion peaks were observed at the similar retention time of glycerol, the inference could be identified by isolation with HRMS and further investigation. Thus, creatinine was identified as the endogenous interference for glycerol analysis and it also caused ion suppression resulting in the decrease of glycerol signal. This study reports the first identification and efficient isolation of endogenous interferences in human urine for “dilute and shoot” method. The information about ion suppression could be novel to prevent overestimation or a false result for antidoping analysis.